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Research Director Emeritus

Phone : (33) 2 31-45-47-04 or (33) 2 31-45-29-47
Fax : (33) 2 31-45-47-14

Research team : MADIR
Research institution : CNRS
Location : CIMAP - GANIL - Office : 018

Professional Address : CIMAP Laboratory, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 5133, 14070 Caen cedex 5, France

Personnal Details :

Born : 24 april 1943
Nationality : French
Personal address : 26 rue des clos, 14000 Caen
Marital status : Married, three children, six grandchildren
Phone : ++33 231 44 26 99

Position held :

Title : Directeur de Recherches Emérite au CNRS.
Researcher at the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), national agency for academic research from October 1968 till 1rst September 2009
Permanent member of CIMAP (Centre de recherches sur les Ions les MAtériaux et la Photonique) laboratory at Caen.

Biography :

  • 1962-1966 Physics studies at Nancy University (F).
  • 1966-1969 Specialisation in Nuclear Physics, University of Strasbourg (F) (now the equivalent of master degree).
  • 1968-2009 Permanent position at national science foundation in France (CNRS) as a researcher.
  • 2009- Directeur de Recherches Emérite at Caen
  • 1969-1970 Associate researcher at Laval University, Quebec (Canada) in nuclear physics.
  • 1970-1974 “PhD thesis” to obtain the grade of “Docteur ès-Sciences” entitled : “Observations des propriétés individuelles et collectives dans deux noyaux de la couche f7/2 : 47Sc et 47V”, prepared in the “Centre de Recherches Nucleaires (CRN)” of Strasbourg (F). and defended at the Strasbourg University.
  • 1974 Habilité à diriger des théses.
  • 1974-1977 Nuclear physics research at CRN Strasbourg (F). Nuclear structure by gamma ray spectroscopy : intruder states in the f7/2 shell.
  • 1977-1982 Materials for solar energy conversion at PHASE laboratory in Strasbourg. Study of amorphous silicon : quantification of the impurities (like H, B and As) and their links with the electronic and optical properties. Pulsed laser annealing of implanted silicon : an epitaxial recrystalization (experimental) due to transient thermal process (model).
  • 1980-1982 Associate professor at the University “Louis Pasteur” in Strasbourg : Solar energy conversion.
  • 1982-1994 Ion-matter interaction with swift heavy ions at CIRIL laboratory in Caen : Experimental study of the basics mechanisms of latent track formation in metals and insulators. Charge exchange of ions, steered in the channel of a crystal : Three bodies interactions REC, RTE, RT2E and ion hyperchanneling.
  • 1994 Associate researcher at ISOLDE (CERN, Geneva, CH) during 6 months : Radioactive probes for solid state physics.
  • 1994-1999 Ion-matter interaction with swift heavy ions at CIRIL laboratory in Caen. Theoretical study of the mechanism of latent track formation in metals and insulators : electron-phonon coupling and ultrafast transient thermal process (thermodynamics in the fs range). Ion channeling and large increase of the stopping power versus impact parameters.
  • 1996 Associate researcher at JAERI, Tokai-Mura, Japan during one month (Pr. A. Iwase now in Osaka prefecture University) .
  • 1996-1999 Associate professor at Caen University : Basics phenomena of the ion-matter interaction for young researchers.
  • 2000 Ion-matter interaction with swift heavy ions at the Beschleunigerlaboratorium” in München (6 months), Germany (Pr. W. Assmann). Sputtering measurements of metals and insulators irradiated by swift heavy ions.
  • 2000-2008 Ion-matter interaction with swift heavy ions at CIRIL laboratory in Caen. Track formation in ionic crystal and comparison with sputtering measurements. Ion-channeling and lifetime measurements of nuclear fission.
  • 2009 Guest researcher at GSI in the MaterialForshung group, Darmstadt, Germany during 3 months (Dr C. Trautmann, MF and T. Stoelkher, Atmic Physics group).
  • 2009 Guest researcher at PNNL (Richland WA, USA) during 2 months (Dr Y Zhang and W.J. Weber).
  • 2009 Guest researcher at Ann Arbor University (USA) geological department, 1 month (Prof. R. C. Ewing).
  • 2009 Directeur de Recherches Emérite au CNRS for 5 years (2009-2014)
  • 2012 Guest researcher at Ann Arbor University (USA) geological department, 1 month (Prof. R. C. Ewing and Dr M. Lang).
  • 2013 Guest researcher in IMP, Lanzhou (R.P. china), Atomic Physics departement , 10 days (Prof. Z.G. Wang).
  • 2014 Nominated Directeur de Recherches Emérite au CNRS for 5 more years (2014-2019)

Experience :

  • I have organised 10 international conferences, 10 workshops and 3 summer schools.
  • 14 students have already completed their Ph.D. with me.
  • I was invited to present a talk in 67 international conferences and workshops.
  • I was invited to make a seminar in 79 different laboratories, 54 of which out of France.
  • 1995-2007 Member of the university board, in Caen and Rouen, for the appointment of professors.
  • 1999-2002 Manager of the ion-surface interaction group at CIRIL, Caen, France.
  • 1999-2005 Member of the administrative council of the “engineer School” ENSICAEN, Caen, France.
  • 1994-2001 Member of the administrative council of the CERI laboratory, Orléans, France.
  • 1999-2003 Manager for the CIRIL of the EuNITT European network.
  • 1986 and 2003-2005 Manager to welcome of physicists using the GANIL accelerator, Caen.
  • 1997-2003 Member of accelerator experimental committee : Vivitron in Strasbourg France.
  • 2003-2004 Deputy spokesman for the material under irradiation at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany.
  • 2003-2010 Member of the international advisory committee of the Nuclear Sciences Center in New Dehli.
  • 2006-2008 Deputy Director of the research at the “engineer School” ENSICAEN, Caen, France, during the time of renewing the contract with the Ministry of Research.
  • 2004-2009 Member of the experimental advisory committee of the Tandem accelerator, Orsay, France.
  • Members of the international committee of three international conferences :
    • 2000-2009 Radiation Effect in Insulators
    • 2005-2015 Swift Heavy Ion in Matter
    • 2008-2016 International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solids.

Main research contributions

1. Researches in Nuclear Physics

  • 1.a Centre de recherches nucléaires in Strasbourg
    Experimental studies of the nuclear structure of nuclei in the 1s, 2p, et 1f7/2 shells (determination of the spin of nuclear levels and their lifetime) were performed by gamma spectroscopy. A theoretical interpretation was performed using the shell or collective models, showing the important role of the nucleus shape (spherical or oblate or prolate) on the nuclear properties (see the list of references before 1979).
  • 1.b Laboratory CIMAP (ex-CIRIL) in Caen
    Lifetime measurements are always a striking test of any models. My competences, in nuclear physics and in channeling of ions in crystals, were used to determine the mean lifetime, in the attosecond range, of compound nucleus resulting from the fission of uranium nucleus [see ref. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 5012].

2. Material for solar energy (PHASE Laboratory (presently INeSS) in Strasbourg)

  • 2.a Determination of components in amorphous silicon : Role of hydrogen.
    Using the nuclear characterizations to determine the relative composition of impurities in amorphous silicon, the efficiency of doping was quantified : The doping impurities are passivated by the hydrogen and only 1% of the impurities are electrically active [see ref. Appl. Phys. Lett. 39 (1981) 154].
  • 2.b Laser-matter interaction
    Amorphous silicon deposited on crystalline silicon can be recrystallised by an irradiation with ns laser pulse. The time and depth of melting the silicon was measured and compared successfully to a model that describes the laser energy deposition in the silicon and the consecutive transient thermal process that allows the epitaxial recrystalisation of the induced liquid phase [see ref. Appl. phys. 19 (1979) 313].

3. Behaviour of solid states materials under Swift Heavy Ion irradiation (SHI)

In CIMAP laboratory (ex-CIRIL) (Centre interdisciplinaire de recherches sur les Ions, les MAtériaux et la Photonique) in Caen.

I have studied experimentally and theoretically the phase transformation created along the trail of swift heavy ions (SHI) delivered by the GANIL accelerator in Caen. This transformation results from relaxation to the lattice of energy deposited on the electrons in a cylinder of 2 nm radius in 10-17 second ( 1000eV/nm3). The object of my work was to characterise experimentally the trail of damage created along the ion path, to develop quantitatively a model, called the inelastic thermal spike model, and to predict the appearance of nanometric objects with new physical and chemical properties.

Tracks were experimentally observed in numerous materials whatever it is an insulator, a semi-conductor or a metal.

Assuming that these tracks result from a transient thermal process, the model considers that the energy deposited on the electrons relax to the lattice via electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. It was assumed that the track results from the quenching of a melt phase created along the ion path. The main parameter is the electron-phonon mean free path. Under this hypothesis the inelastic thermal spike model is able to describe the behaviour of a lot of materials and consequently it is possible to predict the sensitivity of a material under swift heavy ions irradiation [J. Phys. : Condens. Matter 6 (1994) 6733 and Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 237 (2005) 563].

If the track is a consequence of the appearance of a melt phase, sputtering should be linked to surface sublimation energy. Experiments performed in München (ref. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(2002)057602], show that we can make the link for oxides insulators and for metallic materials [Phys. Rev. B 67 (2003) 155404], but not for ionic crystals like LiF.

In the frame of the inelastic thermal spike model, The main parameter of the model, the electron-phonon mean free path, has been recently compared to the initial radial width of energy deposited on the electrons [see ref. Mat-Fys-Medd-52 (2006) 263 and Phys. Rev. B 85 (2012) 054112]. Such a comparison suggests that at the very high ion energy delivered by the accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt (for energy larger than 100 MeV/u), this parameter is no longer active and it is the initial radial energy deposition on the electrons that will determine the sensitivity of a material. This idea will be the guide of my research in Germany.

This model was extended to study the behaviour of surface irradiated by low energy ion with a Highly Charge Ion (HCI, potential energy) in CaF2 : The link between swift heavy ion and highly charge ions (HCI) is clearly extablished [Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5742], showing an additive effect between potential energy (HCI) and kinetic energy (SHI). Based on this correlation, the thermal spike model was extended to describe the surface modifications by highly charged ions showing that the modified depth increases with the bandgap energy [J Phys Condens Matter 29 (2017) 095001].

Quite recently an cooperative interaction has been put forward between nuclear energy loss and electronic energy loss [Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 054106] and has been described using a unified Thermal Spike model, combining the two processes of energy deposition. Moreover the cooperative interaction has been simulated by molecular dynamic calculations [Nucl. Instr. Meth B 303 (2013) 129]. Such work is extended on the stability of nuclear waste material under sequential beam irradiations [Sci. Rep. 6 (2016) 30191]. My present task is to educate researchers in using the thermal spike model as described in Springer Series [Surf. Sci. (61 (2016) 63)].

Short resume of publications

In the file “publications”, you have the list of the publications, patents and monographies chapters in books.

Here I shall give only the most cited publications. All the other publications are given in a publication file.

Indicators (March 2020), from the Web of Sciences, Thomson scientific) : Hirsch factor : 51

The 20 most cited publications :

  • Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors, M. Toulemonde, Ch. Dufour and E. Paumier, Phys. Rev. B 46 (1992) 14362
  • Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors, M. Toulemonde, Ch. Dufour and E. Paumier, Phys. Rev. B 46 (1992) 14362
  • The Se sensitivity of metals under swift-heavy-ion irradiation : a transient thermal process, Z.G. Wang, Ch. Dufour, E. Paumier and M. Toulemonde, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6 (1994) 6733
  • Transient thermal processes in heavy ion irradiation of crystalline inorganic insulators, M. Toulemonde, C. Dufour, A. Meftah and E. Paumier Nucl. Instr. Meth in Phys. Res. B166 (2000) 903
  • Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators : A damage cross section velocity effect, A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J.M. Costantini , M. Hage-Ali, J.P. Stoquert F. Studer and M. Toulemonde, Phys. Rev. B 48(1993) 920
  • Track formation in SiO2 quartz and the thermal-spike mechanism, A. Meftah, F. Brisard, J.M. Costantini, E. Dooryhee, M. Hage-Ali, M. Hervieu, J.P. Stoquert, F. Studer and M. Toulemonde, Phys. Rev. B 49 (1994) 12457
  • Swift heavy ions in insulating and conducting oxides : tracks and physical properties, M. Toulemonde, S. Bouffard and F. Studer, Nucl. Instr. Meth in Phys. Res. B 91(1994) 208
    -* Track formation and fabrication of nanostructures with MeV-ion beams, M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, E. Balanzat, K. Hjort and A. Weidinger, Nucl. Instr. Meth in Phys. Res. B 216 (2004) 1
  • Fine structure in swift heavy ion tracks in amorphous SiO2, P. Kluth, C. S. Schnohr, O. H. Pakarinen, F. Djurabekova, D. J. Sprouster, R. Giulian, M. C. Ridgway, A. P. Byrne, C. Trautmann, D. J. Cookson, K. Nordlund, and M. Toulemonde, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (2008) 175503
  • Track creation in SiO2 and BaFe12O19 by swift heavy ions : a thermal spike description, M. Toulemonde, J.M. Costantini, Ch. Dufour, A. Meftah, E. Paumier and F. Studer, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 116 (1996) 37
  • Experimental Phenomena and Thermal Spike Model Description of Ion Tracks in Amorphisable Inorganic Insulators, M. Toulemonde, W. Assmann, C. Dufour, A. Meftah, F. Studer and C. Trautmann, Mat. Fys. Medd. 52(2006)263
  • A high resistivity phase induced by swift heavy ion irradiation of Bi : a probe for thermal spike damage, Ch. Dufour, A. Audourd, F. Beuneu, J. Dural, J.P. Girard, A. Hairie, M. Levalois, E. Paumier and M. Toulemonde, J. Phys. : Condens. Matt. 5 (1993) 4573
  • Experimental determination of track cross-section in Gd3Ga5O12 and comparison to the inelastic thermal spike model applied to several materials, A. Meftah, J. M. Costantini, N. Khalfaoui, S. Boudjadar, J. P. Stoquert, F. Studer and M. Toulemonde, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 237 (2005) 563
  • Jetlike component in sputtering of LiF induced by swift heavy ions, M. Toulemonde, W. Assmann, F. Grüner and C. Trautmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 057602
  • Modifications of the physical-properties of the high-tc superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-delta (0.1< delta <0.7) by 3.5-GeV xenon ion-bombardment, D. Bourgault, S. Bouffard, M. Toulemonde, D. Groult, J. Provost, F. Studer, N. Nguyen et B. Raveau, Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 6549 13
  • Induced damage by high energy heavy ion irradiation at the GANIL accelerator in semiconductor materials, M. Levalois, P. Bogdanski and M. Toulemonde, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 63 (1992) 14
  • Damage processes and magnetic field orientation in ferrimagnetic oxides Y3Fe5O12 and BaFe12O19 irradiated by high-energy heavy ions : a Mössbauer study, M. Toulemonde, G. Fuchs, N. Nguyen, F. Studer and D. Groult, Phys. Rev. B 35 (1987) 6560
  • Nano-hillocks on CaF2 surfaces created by the potential energy of slow highly charged projectile ions, A.S. El-Said, R. Heller, W. Meissl, R. Ritter, S. Facsko, C. Lemell, B. Solleder, I.C. Gebeshuber, G. Betz, M. Toulemonde, W. Möller, J. Burgdörfer, and F. Aumayr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 237601
  • Synergy of nuclear and electronic energy losses in ion-irradiation processes : The case of vitreous silicon dioxide, M. Toulemonde,W.J. Weber, Li Guosheng, V. Shutthanandan, P. Kluth, PF Yang, YG Wang and YW Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 054106
  • Swift-uranium-ion-induced damage in sapphire, B. Canut, A. Benyagoub ,G. Marest, A. Meftah, N. Moncoffre, S.M.M. Ramos, F. Studer, P. Thévenard and M. Toulemonde, Phys. Rev. B 51 (1995) 12194
  • Swelling effects in lithium fluoride induced by swift heavy ions, C. Trautmann, M. Toulemonde, J.M. Costantini, J.J. Grob and K. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 13